Ideological Crisis and Strategy Formulation: Politics of the CPI, 1947 – 1952
The communist movement fell into deep crisis in India immediately after independence in 1947. This crisis lasted for nearly five years up to 1952, when there was some sort of internal compromises and suppression of ideological differences for time being within the Leninist structure of the Communist Party of India (hereafter CPI). This period was significantly critical not only in the history of the left, but also in the history of the newly liberated post-colonial State of India. The period under review witnessed the gradual transition of India towards post-colonial structure from a colonial one. The primary features of this transition were the formal end of colonial rule, the making and adoption of the Indian constitution, the declaration of India as sovereign republic and the holding of the first general election based on universal adult suffrage in 1952. The construction of a post-colonial state in South Asia between 1947 and 1952 was a clear manifestation of what India had achieved from its struggle for liberation against the Raj. Moreover, India was the pioneer amongst the Afro-Asian nation states to have established the post-colonial state structure. Therefore, this critical phase in the contemporary Indian history needs careful analysis.